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For the subsequent premier in West Germany he added a little sequel which was intended as a warning against Nazism , though this was later removed.
A sketch for Frisch's next play, Andorra had also already appeared in the Tagebuch — Andorra deals with the power of preconceptions concerning fellow human beings.
The principal character, Andri, is a youth who is assumed to be, like his father, Jewish. The boy therefore has to deal with anti-semitic prejudice, and while growing up he has acquired traits which those around him regard as "typically Jewish".
There is also exploration of various associated individual hypocrisies that arise in the small fictional town where the action takes place.
It later transpires that Andri is his father's adopted son and therefore not himself Jewish, although the townsfolk are too focused on their preconceptions to accept this.
The themes of the play seem to have been particularly close to the author's heart: in the space of three years Frisch had written no fewer than five versions before, towards the end of , it received its first performance.
The play was a success both with the critics and commercially. It nevertheless attracted controversy, especially after it opened in the United States, from those who thought that it treated with unnecessary frivolity issues which were still extremely painful so soon after the Nazi Holocaust had been publicised in the west.
Another criticism was that by presenting its theme as one of generalised human failings, the play somehow diminished the level of specifically German guilt for recent real-life atrocities.
During July Frisch got to know the Carinthian writer Ingeborg Bachmann , and the two became lovers. He had left his wife and children in and now, in , he was divorced.
Although Bachmann rejected the idea of a formal marriage, Frisch nevertheless followed her to Rome where by now she lived, and the city became the centre of both their lives until in Frisch's case The relationship between Frisch and Bachmann was intense, but not free of tensions.
Frisch remained true to his habit of sexual infidelity, but reacted with intense jealousy when his partner demanded the right to behave in much the same way.
Gantenbein works through the ending of a marriage with a complicated succession of "what if? This theme is echoed in Malina , where Bachmann's narrator confesses that she is "double" to her lover she is herself, but she is also her husband, Malina , leading to an ambiguous "murder" when the husband and wife part.
Frisch tests alternative narratives "like clothes", and comes to the conclusion that none of the tested scenarios leads to an entirely "fair" outcome.
Frisch himself wrote of Gantenbein that his purpose was "to show the reality of an individual by having him appear as a blank patch outlined by the sum of fictional entities congruent with his personality.
The story is not told as if an individual could be identified by his factual behaviour; let him betray himself in his fictions.
Frisch was disappointed that his commercially very successful plays Biedermann und die Brandstifter and Andorra had both been, in his view, widely misunderstood.
His answer was to move away from the play as a form of parable , in favour of a new form of expression which he termed " Dramaturgy of Permutation " "Dramaturgie der Permutation" , a form which he had introduced with Gantenbein and which he now progressed with Biographie , written in its original version in At the centre of the play is a behavioural scientist who is given the chance to live his life again, and finds himself unable to take any key decisions differently the second time round.
The Swiss premier of the play was to have been directed by Rudolf Noelte , but Frisch and Noelte fell out in the Autumn of , a week before the scheduled first performance, which led to the Zürich opening being postponed for several months.
In the end the play opened in the Zürich Playhouse in February , the performances being directed by Leopold Lindtberg. Lindtberg was a long established and well regarded theatre director, but his production of Biografie: Ein Spiel neither impressed the critics nor delighted theatre audiences.
Frisch ended up deciding that he had been expecting more from the audience than he should have expected them to bring to the theatrical experience.
After this latest disappointment it would be another eleven years before Frisch returned to theatrical writing.
He was 51 and she was 28 years younger. In they moved into an apartment together in Rome, and in autumn they relocated to Switzerland, setting up home together in an extensively modernised cottage in Berzona , Ticino.
This is fantastic countryside"   As a "social experiment" they also, in , temporarily occupied a second home in an apartment block in Aussersihl , a residential quarter of down-town Zürich known, then as now, for its high levels of recorded crime and delinquency, but they quickly swapped this for an apartment in Küsnacht , close to the lake shore.
Frisch and Oellers were married at the end of Marianne Oellers accompanied her future husband on numerous foreign trips. In order to try to form an independent assessment of "life behind the Iron Curtain " they then, in , toured the Soviet Union.
They returned two years later to attend a Writers' Congress at which they met Christa and Gerhard Wolf , leading authors in what was then East Germany , with whom they established lasting friendships.
After they married, Frisch and his young wife continued to travel extensively, visiting Japan in and undertaking extended stays in the United States.
Many impressions of these visits are published in Frisch's Tagebuch covering the period — In , after returning from the US, the couple took a second apartment in the Friedenau quarter of West Berlin , and this soon became the place where they spent most of their time.
During the period —79 Frisch was able to participate increasingly in the intellectual life of the place.
Living away from his homeland intensified his negative attitude to Switzerland, which had already been apparent in William Tell for Schools Wilhelm Tell für die Schule and which reappears in his Little service book Dienstbüchlein , in which he reflects on his time in the Swiss army some 30 years earlier.
More negativity about Switzerland was on show in January when he delivered a speech titled "Switzerland as a homeland? Although he nurtured no political ambitions on his own account, Frisch became increasingly attracted to the ideas of social democratic politics.
He also became friendly with Helmut Schmidt who had recently succeeded the Berlin—born Willy Brandt as Chancellor of Germany and was already becoming something of a respected elder statesman for the country's moderate left and, as a former Defence Minister , a target of opprobrium for some on the SPD 's im moderate left.
In October , slightly improbably, the Swiss dramatist Frisch accompanied Chancellor Schmidt on what for them both was their first visit to China,  as part of an official West German delegation.
This happened in the village of Montauk on Long Island , and Montauk was the title the author gave to an autobiographical novel that appeared in The book centred on his love life, including both his own marriage with Marianne Oellers-Frisch and an affair that she had been having with the American writer Donald Barthelme.
There followed a very public dispute between Frisch and his wife over where to draw the line between private and public life, and the two became increasingly estranged, divorcing in In , Frisch survived serious health problems, and the next year was actively involved in setting up the Max Frisch Foundation Max-Frisch-Stiftung , established in October , and to which he entrusted the administration of his estate.
The foundation's archive is kept at the ETH Zurich , and has been publicly accessible since Old age and the transience of life now came increasingly to the fore in Frisch's work.
In he began work on the play Triptychon , although it was not ready to be performed for another three years. The word triptych is more usually applied to paintings, and the play is set in three triptych-like sections in which many of the key characters are notionally dead.
The piece was first unveiled as a radio play in April , receiving its stage premier in Lausanne six months later. The play was rejected for performance in Frankfurt am Main where it was deemed too apolitical.
The Austrian premier in Vienna at the Burgtheater was seen by Frisch as a success, although the audience reaction to the complexity of the work's unconventional structure was still a little cautious.
By now Frisch had become a respected and from time to time honoured writer in the United States. The story concerns a retired industrialist suffering from the decline in his mental faculties and the loss of the camaraderie which he used to enjoy with colleagues.
Frisch was able, from his own experience of approaching old age, to bring a compelling authenticity to the piece, although he rejected attempts to play up its autobiographical aspects.
In Frisch returned to Zürich, where he would live for the rest of his life. In he began a relationship with his final life partner, Karen Pilliod.
After Frisch's death Pilliod let it be known that between and Frisch had also had an affair with her mother, Madeleine Seigner-Besson.
Frisch now arranged his funeral, but he also took time to engage in discussion about the abolition of the army , and published a piece in the form of a dialogue on the subject titled Switzerland without an Army?
A Palaver Schweiz ohne Armee? Frisch died on 4 April while in the middle of preparing for his 80th birthday. His friends Peter Bichsel and Michel Seigner spoke at the ceremony.
Karin Pilliod also read a short address, but there was no speech from any church minister. Frisch was an agnostic who found religious beliefs superfluous.
A tablet on the wall of the cemetery at Berzona commemorates him. The diary became a very characteristic prose form for Frisch.
The diaries published by Frisch were closer to the literary "structured consciousness" narratives associated with Joyce and Döblin , providing an acceptable alternative but effective method for Frisch to communicate real-world truths.
Unlike his earlier works, output in diary form could more directly reflect the author's own positions.
In this respect the work influenced Frisch's own future prose works. He published two further literary diaries covering the periods — and — The typescript for a further diary, started in , was discovered only in among the papers of Frisch's secretary.
Because of its rather fragmentary nature Frisch's Diary 3 Tagebuch 3 was described by the publisher as a draft work by Frisch: it was edited and provided with an extensive commentary by Peter von Matt , chairman of the Max Frisch Foundation.
At the same time several of his novels such as I'm Not Stiller , Homo Faber as well as the narrative work Montauk take the form of diaries created by their respective protagonists.
Frisch himself took the view that the diary offered the prose format that corresponded with his natural approach to prose writing, something that he could "no more change than the shape of his nose".
Frisch's friend and fellow-writer, Friedrich Dürrenmatt , explained that in I'm Not Stiller the "diary-narrative" approach enabled the author to participate as a character in his own novel without embarrassment.
More specifically, in the character of James Larkin White, the American who in reality is indistinguishable from Stiller himself, but who nevertheless vigorously denies being the same man, embodies the author, who in his work cannot fail to identify the character as himself, but is nevertheless required by the literary requirements of the narrative to conceal the fact.
Rolf Keiser points out that the diary format enables Frisch most forcefully to demonstrate his familiar theme that thoughts are always based on one specific standpoint and its context; and that it can never be possible to present a comprehensive view of the world, nor even to define a single life, using language alone.
Frisch's first public success was as a writer for theatre, and later in his life he himself often stressed that he was in the first place a creature of the theatre.
Nevertheless, the diaries, and even more than these, the novels and the longer narrative works are among his most important literary creations.
In his final decades Frisch tended to move away from drama and concentrate on prose narratives. He himself is on record with the opinion that the subjective requirements of story telling suited him better than the greater level of objectivity required by theatre work.
His first literary works, up till , all employed prose formats. All three of the substantive works are autobiographical and all three centre round the dilemma of a young author torn between bourgeois respectability and "artistic" life style, exhibiting on behalf of the protagonists differing outcomes to what Frisch saw as his own dilemma.
In this respect Homo Faber and Stiller offer complementary situations. If Stiller had rejected the stipulations set out by others, he would have arrived at the position of Walter Faber, the ultra-rationalist protagonist of Homo Faber.
Instead of baldly asserting "I am not Stiller " the full title of Gantebein uses the German "Conjunctive" subjunctive to give a title along the lines "My name represents Gantenbein ".
The protagonist's aspiration has moved on from the search for a fixed identity to a less binary approach, trying to find a midpoint identity, testing out biographical and historic scenarios.
Again, the three later prose works Montauk , Man in the Holocene Der Mensch erscheint im Holozän , and Bluebeard Blaubart , are frequently grouped together by scholars.
All three are characterized by a turning towards death and a weighing up of life. Structurally they display a savage pruning of narrative complexity.
The Hamburg born critic Volker Hage identified in the three works "an underlying unity, not in the sense of a conventional trilogy The three books complement one another while each retains its individual wholeness All three books have a flavour of the balance sheet in a set of year-end financial accounts, disclosing only that which is necessary: summarized and zipped up".
Frisch's dramas up until the early s are divided by the literary commentator Manfred Jurgensen into three groups: 1 the early wartime pieces, 2 the poetic plays such as Don Juan or the Love of Geometry Don Juan oder Die Liebe zur Geometrie and 3 the dialectical pieces.
Indeed, these two are among the most successful German language plays. In an interview with Heinz Ludwig Arnold Frisch vigorously rejected their allegorical approach: "I have established only that when I apply the parable format, I am obliged to deliver a message that I actually do not have".
His late biographical plays Biography: A game Biografie: Ein Spiel and Triptychon were apolitical but they failed to match the public success of his earlier dramas.
It was only shortly before his death that Frisch returned to the stage with a more political message, with Jonas and his Veteran , a stage version of his arresting dialogue Switzerland without an army?
A Palaver. For Klaus Müller-Salget, the defining feature which most of Frisch's stage works share is their failure to present realistic situations.
Instead they are mind games that toy with time and space. For instance, The Chinese Wall Die Chinesische Mauer mixes literary and historical characters, while in the Triptychon we are invited to listen to the conversations of various dead people.
In Biography: A game Biografie: Ein Spiel a life-story is retrospectively "corrected", while Santa Cruz and Prince Öderland Graf Öderland combine aspects of a dream sequence with the features of a morality tale.
Characteristic of Frisch's stage plays are minimalist stage-sets and the application of devices such as splitting the stage in two parts, use of a " Greek chorus " and characters addressing the audience directly.
In a manner reminiscent of Brecht 's epic theatre, audience members are not expected to identify with the characters on stage, but rather to have their own thoughts and assumptions stimulated and provoked.
Unlike Brecht however, Frisch offered few insights or answers, preferring to leave the audience the freedom to provide their own interpretations.
Frisch himself acknowledged that the part of writing a new play that most fascinated him was the first draft, when the piece was undefined, and the possibilities for its development were still wide open.
The critic Hellmuth Karasek identified in Frisch's plays a mistrust of dramatic structure, apparent from the way in which Don Juan or the Love of Geometry applies theatrical method.
Frisch prioritized the unbelievable aspects of theatre and valued transparency. Unlike his friend, the dramatist Friedrich Dürrenmatt , Frisch had little appetite for theatrical effects, which might distract from doubts and sceptical insights included in a script.
For Frisch, effects came from a character being lost for words, from a moment of silence, or from a misunderstanding.
His early work is strongly influenced by the poetical imagery of Albin Zollinger , and not without a certain imitative lyricism, something from which in later life he would distance himself, dismissing it as "phoney poeticising" "falsche Poetisierung".
His later works employed a tighter, consciously unpretentious style, which Frisch himself described as "generally very colloquial" "im Allgemeinen sehr gesprochen.
The Standard German to which he was introduced as a written and literary language is naturally preferred for his written work, but not without regular appearances by dialect variations , introduced as stylistic devices.
A defining element in Frisch was an underlying scepticism as to the adequacy of language. In I'm Not Stiller his protagonist cries out, "I have no language for my reality!
Our core concern remains unwritten, and that means, quite literally, that you write around it. You adjust the settings. You provide statements that can never contain actual experience: experience itself remains beyond the reach of language Frisch adapted principals of Bertolt Brecht 's Epic theatre both for his dramas and for his prose works.
As early as he concluded a contemplative piece on the alienation effect with the observation, "One might be tempted to ascribe all these thoughts to the narrative author: the linguistic application of the alienation effect , the wilfully mischievous aspect of the prose, the uninhibited artistry which most German language readers will reject because they find it "too arty" and because it inhibits empathy and connection, sabotaging the conventional illusion that the story in the narrative really happened.
The play "Biography: A game" "Biografie: Ein Spiel" extended similar techniques to theatre audiences. Already in "Stiller" Frisch embedded, in a novel, little sub-narratives in the form of fragmentary episodic sections from his "diaries".
Frisch's literary work centre round certain core themes and motifs many of which, in various forms, recur through the entire range of the author's output.
In the Diary — Frisch spells out a central idea that runs through his subsequent work: "You shall not make for yourself any graven image, God instructs us.
That should also apply in this sense: God lives in every person, though we may not notice. That oversight is a sin that we commit and it is a sin that is almost ceaselessly committed against us — except if we love".
It is only through love that people may manifest the mutability and versatility necessary to accept one another's intrinsic inner potential.
Without love people reduce one another and the entire world down to a series of simple preformed images. Hans Jürg Lüthi divides Frisch's work, into two categories according to how this image is treated.
In the first category, the destiny of the protagonist is to live the simplistic image. Examples include the play Andorra in which Andri, identified wrongly by the other characters as a Jew is obliged to work through the fate assigned to him by others.
Something analogous arises with the novel Homo Faber where the protagonist is effectively imprisoned by the technician's "ultra-rational" prism through which he is fated to conduct his existence.
The second category of works identified by Lüthi centres on the theme of libration from the lovelessly predetermined image.
Real personal identity stands in stark contrast to this simplistic image. For Frisch, each person possesses a unique Individualism , justified from the inner being, and which needs to be expressed and realized.
To be effective it can operate only through the individual's life, or else the individual self will be incomplete.
The fear that the individual "myself" may be overlooked and the life thereby missed, was already a central theme in Frisch's early works.
A failure in the "selection of self" was likely to result in alienation of the self both from itself and from the human world more generally.
Only within the limited span of an individual human life can personal existence find a fulfilment that can exclude the individual from the endless immutability of death.
In I'm Not Stiller Frisch set out a criterion for a fulfilled life as being "that an individual be identical with himself. Otherwise he has never really existed".
Claus Reschke says that the male protagonists in Frisch's work are all similar modern Intellectual types: egocentric , indecisive, uncertain in respect of their own self-image, they often misjudge their actual situation.
Their interpersonal relationships are superficial to the point of agnosticism, which condemns them to live as isolated loners. If they do develop some deeper relationship involving women, they lose emotional balance, becoming unreliable partners, possessive and jealous.
They repeatedly assume outdated gender roles , masking sexual insecurity behind chauvinism. All this time their relationships involving women are overshadowed by feelings of guilt.
In a relationship with a woman they look for "real life", from which they can obtain completeness and self-fulfilment, untrammelled by conflict and paralyzing repetition, and which will never lose elements of novelty and spontaneity.
Female protagonists in Frisch's work also lead back to a recurring gender-based stereotype , according to Mona Knapp. Frisch's compositions tend to be centred on male protagonists, around which his leading female characters, virtually interchangeable, fulfil a structural and focused function.
Often they are idolised as "great" and "wonderful", superficially emancipated and stronger than the men. However, they actually tend to be driven by petty motivations: disloyalty, greed and unfeelingness.
In the author's later works the female characters become increasingly one-dimensional, without evidencing any inner ambivalence.
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