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Aztec

Aztec. Alle Bauelemente waren bei den Azteken exakt gleich. Wer glaubt, die mächtigen Stufenpyramiden seien aus einzelnen Steinblöcken zusammengesetzt. From 15 October the Weltmuseum Wien is hosting an exhibition that showcases the legendary art and culture of the Aztecs. In Pocahontas' wardrobe you will find a wide variety of prints, most of her clothes being covered in tribal or aztec patterns, denim and fringed ponchos as well as.

Aztec (New Mexico)

Whereas some scripts only existed for a short time – the Indus script disappeared along with its culture, the scripts of the Mayas and Aztecs were destroyed by. Aztec | Jennings, Gary | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. In Pocahontas' wardrobe you will find a wide variety of prints, most of her clothes being covered in tribal or aztec patterns, denim and fringed ponchos as well as.

Aztec Early Aztec History Video

Misunderstood Moments in History - Rise of the Aztec Empire

The Aztecs, who probably originated as a nomadic tribe in northern Mexico, arrived in Mesoamerica around the beginning of the 13th century. Aztec, self name Culhua-Mexica, Nahuatl-speaking people who in the 15th and early 16th centuries ruled a large empire in what is now central and southern Mexico. The Aztecs are so called from Aztlán (“White Land”), an allusion to their origins, probably in northern Mexico. Aztec Learning System Login. Login. Password. Aztec rule has been described by scholars as " hegemonic " or "indirect". The Aztecs left rulers of conquered cities in power so long as they agreed to pay semi-annual tribute to the Alliance, as well as supply military forces when needed for the Aztec war efforts. {"user_id":"5fc8b98cf3eaee95e","real_id":null,"user_name":null,"first_name":null,"middle_name":"","last_name":null,"full_name":"","email":"[email protected] Möglicherweise sind Reisen Ksw Live für bestimmte Zwecke erlaubt und insbesondere touristische Reisen sind unter Umständen nicht gestattet. In addition, the Chiapflanze Unentschieden Nfl additional beneficial ingredients, wie Vitamin A, Minerals, such as potassium, Calcium and zinc and antioxidants and high quality proteins. Tschechisch Wörterbücher. Aztec bezeichnet: Orte und andere geographische Objekte in den Vereinigten Staaten: Aztec (Arizona) · Aztec (New Mexico) · Aztec Lodge (Arizona); Aztec. Aztec ist eine Kleinstadt im Nordwesten des US-Bundesstaates New Mexico im San Juan County. Aztec hat Einwohner und eine Fläche von 25,4 km². Aztec® Gold Pack, Maisherbizid mit starker Blatt- und Bodenwirkung zur Bekämpfung von Hirsen und zweikeimblättrigen Unkräutern im Nachauflauf. Whereas some scripts only existed for a short time – the Indus script disappeared along with its culture, the scripts of the Mayas and Aztecs were destroyed by.

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Diorite, greenstone and shells Mask 21 x Sankt Pauli Spielplan x 14 cm earrings 3,2 x 7,2 cm each Museo del Templo Mayor, Mexico-City The Aztecs worshipped Teotihuacan as a holy place, where according to their creation myth the definitive world was created. One was to secure the feathers in place using agave cord Live Wetten three-dimensional objects such as Aztec whisks, fans, bracelets, headgear and other Breite Gasse Frankfurt. Copper products were generally imported from the Tarascans of Michoacan. The city was interlaced with canals, which were useful for transportation. In Aztec artwork a number of monumental stone sculptures have been preserved, such sculptures usually functioned as adornments for religious architecture.
Aztec
Aztec

Juan Diego , the Nahua to whom the apparition was said to appear, links the dark Virgin to Mexico's Aztec past. When New Spain achieved independence in and became a monarchy, the First Mexican Empire , its flag had the traditional Aztec eagle on a nopal cactus.

The eagle had a crown, symbolizing the new Mexican monarchy. In the s, when the French established the Second Mexican Empire under Maximilian of Habsburg , the Mexican flag retained the emblematic eagle and cactus, with elaborate symbols of monarchy.

After the defeat of the French and their Mexican collaborators, the Mexican Republic was re-established, and the flag returned to its republican simplicity.

Tensions within post-independence Mexico pitted those rejecting the ancient civilizations of Mexico as source of national pride, the Hispanistas , mostly politically conservative Mexican elites, and those who saw them as a source of pride, the Indigenistas , who were mostly liberal Mexican elites.

Although the flag of the Mexican Republic had the symbol of the Aztecs as its central element, conservative elites were generally hostile to the current indigenous populations of Mexico or crediting them with a glorious prehispanic history.

With Santa Anna's overthrow in , Mexican liberals and scholars interested in the indigenous past became more active.

Liberals were more favorably inclined to the indigenous populations and their history, but considered a pressing matter being the "Indian Problem.

The late nineteenth century in Mexico was a period in which Aztec civilization became a point of national pride.

His policies opening Mexico to foreign investors and modernizing the country under a firm hand controlling unrest, "Order and Progress," undermined Mexico's indigenous populations and their communities.

In world's fairs of the late nineteenth century, Mexico's pavilions included a major focus on its indigenous past, especially the Aztecs.

Mexican scholars such as Alfredo Chavero helped shape the cultural image of Mexico at these exhibitions. The Mexican Revolution — and significant participation of indigenous people in the struggle in many regions, ignited a broad government-sponsored political and cultural movement of indigenismo , with symbols of Mexico's Aztec past becoming ubiquitous, most especially in Mexican muralism of Diego Rivera.

In their works, Mexican authors such as Octavio Paz and Agustin Fuentes have analyzed the use Aztec symbols by the modern Mexican state, critiquing the way it adopts and adapts indigenous culture to political ends, yet they have also in their works made use of the symbolic idiom themselves.

Paz for example critiqued the architectural layout of the National Museum of Anthropology , which constructs a view of Mexican history as culminating with the Aztecs, as an expression of a nationalist appropriation of Aztec culture.

Scholars in Europe and the United States increasingly wanted investigations into Mexico's ancient civilizations, starting in the nineteenth century.

Humboldt had been extremely important bringing ancient Mexico into broader scholarly discussions of ancient civilizations.

It was Humboldt…who woke us from our sleep. Although not directly connected with the Aztecs, it contributed to the increased interest in ancient Mexican studies in Europe.

English aristocrat Lord Kingsborough spent considerable energy in their pursuit of understanding of ancient Mexico. Kingsborough answered Humboldt's call for the publication of all known Mexican codices, publishing nine volumes of Antiquities of Mexico — that were richly illustrated, bankrupting him.

He was not directly interested in the Aztecs, but rather in proving that Mexico had been colonized by Jews. In the United States in the early nineteenth century, interest in ancient Mexico propelled John Lloyd Stephens to travel to Mexico and then publish well-illustrated accounts in the early s.

But the research of a half-blind Bostonian, William Hickling Prescott , into the Spanish conquest of Mexico resulted in his highly popular and deeply researched The Conquest of Mexico His resulting work was a mixture of pro- and anti-Aztec attitudes.

In the assessment of Benjamin Keen , Prescott's history "has survived attacks from every quarter, and still dominates the conceptions of the laymen, if not the specialist, concerning Aztec civilization.

One entire work was devoted to ancient Mexico, half of which concerned the Aztecs. It was a work of synthesis drawing on Ixtlilxochitl and Brasseur de Bourbourg, among others.

When the International Congress of Americanists was formed in Nancy, France in , Mexican scholars became active participants, and Mexico City has hosted the biennial multidisciplinary meeting six times, starting in Mexico's ancient civilizations have continued to be the focus of major scholarly investigations by Mexican and international scholars.

The Nahuatl language is today spoken by 1. Mexican Spanish today incorporates hundreds of loans from Nahuatl, and many of these words have passed into general Spanish use, and further into other world languages.

In Mexico, Aztec place names are ubiquitous, particularly in central Mexico where the Aztec empire was centered, but also in other regions where many towns, cities and regions were established under their Nahuatl names, as Aztec auxiliary troops accompanied the Spanish colonizers on the early expeditions that mapped New Spain.

In this way even towns, that were not originally Nahuatl speaking came to be known by their Nahuatl names. Mexican cuisine continues to be based on staple elements of Mesoamerican cooking and, particularly, of Aztec cuisine : corn, chili, beans, squash, tomato, avocado.

Many of these staple products continue to be known by their Nahuatl names, carrying in this way ties to the Aztec people who introduced these foods to the Spaniards and to the world.

Through spread of ancient Mesoamerican food elements, particularly plants, Nahuatl loan words chocolate , tomato , chili , avocado , tamale , taco , pupusa , chipotle , pozole , atole have been borrowed through Spanish into other languages around the world.

Today Aztec images and Nahuatl words are often used to lend an air of authenticity or exoticism in the marketing of Mexican cuisine.

The idea of the Aztecs has captivated the imaginations of Europeans since the first encounters, and has provided many iconic symbols to Western popular culture.

The Aztecs and figures from Aztec mythology feature in Western culture. Knopf , insisted on a change of title.

Aztec society has also been depicted in cinema. It adopted the perspective of an Aztec scribe, Topiltzin, who survived the attack on the temple of Tenochtitlan.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Aztec. For other uses, see Aztec disambiguation. Ethnic group of central Mexico and its civilization.

Main article: History of the Aztecs. Main article: Aztec Empire. Main article: Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire. Main articles: Class in Aztec society , Aztec society , and Aztec slavery.

Main article: Women in Aztec civilization. See also: Aztec Empire: Government. Main article: Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Main article: Aztec religion.

Main article: List of Aztec gods and supernatural beings. Main article: Aztec mythology. Main article: Aztec calendar. Main article: Aztec writing.

An Aztec bowl for everyday use. Black on orange ware, a simple Aztec IV style flower design. Main article: Mexican featherwork.

Further information: Society in the Spanish Colonial Americas. Main article: Population history of American indigenous peoples. See also: Society in the Spanish Colonial Americas.

Coat of Arms of Mexico , also present in flag. See also: Aztec cuisine and List of Mexican dishes. Mesoamerica portal Indigenous peoples of the Americas portal Civilizations portal.

I believe it makes more sense to expand the definition of "Aztec" to include the peoples of nearby highland valleys in addition to the inhabitants of the Valley of Mexico.

Readers will find some variation in the terms authors employ in this handbook, but, in general, different authors use Aztecs to refer to people incorporated into the empire of the Triple Alliance in the Late Postclassic period.

An empire of such broad geographic extent [ Scholars often use more specific identifiers, such as Mexica or Tenochca, when appropriate, and they generally employ the term Nahuas to refer to indigenous people in central Mexico [ All of these terms introduce their own problems, whether because they are vague, subsume too much variation, are imposed labels, or are problematic for some other reason.

We have not found a solution that all can agree on and thus accept the varied viewpoints of authors. We use the term Aztec because today it is widely recognized by both scholars and the international public.

In English the variant "Montezuma" was originally the most common, but has now largely been replaced with "motecuhzoma" and "moteuczoma", in Spanish the term "moctezuma" which inverts the order of t and k has been predominant and is a common surname in Mexico, but is now also largely replaced with a form that respects the original Nahuatl structure, such as "motecuzoma".

Indeed no conquests are recorded for Motecuzoma in the last years of his reign, suggesting that he may have been incapable of ruling, or even dead Diel Archived from the original on 17 October Retrieved 30 August Online Etymology Dictionary.

Archived from the original on 7 July The New York Times. Archived from the original on 13 January Retrieved 5 January Macmillan Publishers. Archived from the original on 22 September Retrieved 12 April Archived from the original on 12 April Part One: Historical Films".

Native American Films. Archived from the original on 15 October The Early History of Greater Mexico. Prentice Hall. In Deborah L. The Oxford Handbook of the Aztecs.

Barlow, Robert H. The Americas. University of California Press. Beekman, C. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory.

Berdan, Frances Case Studies in Cultural Anthropology. Berdan, Frances F. Hodge; Michael E. Smith; Emily Umberger eds.

Aztec Imperial Strategies. Imperial Strategies and Core-Periphery Relations". The Essential Codex Mendoza. Aztec Archaeology and Ethnohistory.

Cambridge University Press. Berdan, F. Ancient Mesoamerica. Boone, Elizabeth Hill Austin: University of Texas Press. Brading, D. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bright, W. Brumfiel, Elizabeth M. Archeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association. Bueno, Christina University of New Mexico Press.

Burkhart, Louise M. Indian women of early Mexico. Dialectologia et Geolinguistica. Campbell, Lyle Oxford Studies in Anthropoical Linguistics, 4.

Carrasco, David Boston, MA: Beacon Press. The Aztecs: A very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press.

Carrasco, Pedro University of Oklahoma Press. Charlton, Thomas Mesoamerica Part 1. Chipman, Donald E. University of Texas Press.

Cline, Howard F. Cline ed. Cline, Sarah Mesoamerica Part 2. The Aztec palimpsest: Mexico in the Modern Imagination.

Tucson: University of Arizona Press. Diel, Lori B. RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics. Elson, Cristina; Smith, Michael E. Franco, Jean Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies.

Frazier, E. In Cora Ma. Falero Ruiz ed. Escudo Nacional: flora, fauna y biodiversidad. Gibson, Charles The "Triple Alliance" came to establish hegemony over much of central Mesoamerica, including areas of great linguistic and cultural diversity.

Administration of the empire was performed through largely traditional, indirect means. However, over time something of a nascent bureaucracy may have been beginning to form insofar as the state organization became increasingly centralized.

Before the reign of Nezahualcoyotl — , the Aztec empire operated as a confederation along traditional Mesoamerican lines. Independent altepetl were led by tlatoani lit.

A typical Mesoamerican confederation placed a Huey Tlatoani lit. Following Nezahualcoyotl, the Aztec empire followed a somewhat divergent path, with some tlatoani of recently conquered or otherwise subordinated altepetl becoming replaced with calpixque stewards charged with collecting tribute on behalf of the Huetlatoani rather than simply replacing an old tlatoque with new ones from the same set of local nobility.

Yet the Huey tlatoani was not the sole executive. It was the responsibility of the Huey tlatoani to deal with the external issues of empire; the management of tribute, war, diplomacy, and expansion were all under the purview of the Huey tlatoani.

It was the role of the Cihuacoatl to govern a given city itself. The Cihuacoatl was always a close relative of the Huey tlatoani; Tlacaelel , for example, was the brother of Moctezuma I.

Both the title "Cihuacoatl", which means "female snake" it is the name of a Nahua deity , and the role of the position, somewhat analogous to a European Viceroy or Prime Minister , reflect the dualistic nature of Nahua cosmology.

Neither the position of Cihuacoatl nor the position of Huetlatoani were priestly, yet both did have important ritual tasks.

Those of the former were associated with the "female" wet season, those of the latter with the "male" dry season. While the position of Cihuacoatl is best attested in Tenochtitlan, it is known that the position also existed the nearby altepetl of Atzcapotzalco , Culhuacan , and Tenochtitlan's ally Texcoco.

Despite the apparent lesser status of the position, a Cihuacoatl could prove both influential and powerful, as in the case of Tlacaelel.

Early in the history of the empire, Tenochtitlan developed a four-member military and advisory Council which assisted the Huey tlatoani in his decision-making: the tlacochcalcatl ; the tlaccatecatl ; the ezhuahuacatl ; [58] and the tlillancalqui.

This design not only provided advise for the ruler, it also served to contain ambition on the part of the nobility, as henceforth Huey Tlatoani could only be selected from the Council.

Moreover, the actions of any one member of the Council could easily be blocked by the other three, providing a simple system of checks on the ambition higher officials.

These four Council members were also generals, members of various military societies. The ranks of the members were not equal, with the tlacochcalcatl and tlaccatecatl having a higher status than the others.

These two Councillors were members of the two most prestigious military societies, the cuauhchique "shorn ones" and the otontin " Otomies ".

Traditionally, provinces and altepetl were governed by hereditary tlatoani. As the empire grew, the system evolved further and some tlatoani were replaced by other officials.

The other officials had similar authority to tlatoani. As has already been mentioned, directly appointed stewards singular calpixqui , plural calpixque were sometimes imposed on altepetl instead of the selection of provincial nobility to the same position of tlatoani.

At the height of empire, the organization of the state into tributary and strategic provinces saw an elaboration of this system. The 38 tributary provinces fell under the supervision of high stewards, or huecalpixque , whose authority extended over the lower-ranking calpixque.

These calpixque and huecalpixque were essentially managers of the provincial tribute system which was overseen and coordinated in the paramount capital of Tenochtitlan not by the huetlatoani , but rather by a separate position altogether: the petlacalcatl.

On the occasion that a recently conquered altepetl was seen as particularly restive, a military governor, or cuauhtlatoani , was placed at the head of provincial supervision.

One was stationed in the province itself, perhaps for supervising the collection of tribute, and the other in Tenochtitlan, perhaps for supervising storage of tribute.

Tribute was drawn from commoners, the macehualtin , and distributed to the nobility, be they 'kings' tlatoque , lesser rulers teteuctin , or provincial nobility pipiltin.

Tribute collection was supervised by the above officials and relied upon the coercive power of the Aztec military, but also upon the cooperation of the pipiltin the local nobility who were themselves exempt from and recipient to tribute and the hereditary class of merchants known as pochteca.

These pochteca had various gradations of ranks which granted them certain trading rights and so were not necessarily pipiltin themselves, yet they played an important role in both the growth and administration of the Aztec tributary system nonetheless.

The power, political and economic, of the pochteca was strongly tied to the political and military power of the Aztec nobility and state.

In addition to serving as diplomats teucnenenque , or "travelers of the lord" and spies in the prelude to conquest, higher-ranking pochteca also served as judges in market plazas and were to certain degree autonomous corporate groups , having administrative duties within their own estate.

Originally, the Aztec empire was a loose alliance between three cities: Tenochtitlan , Texcoco , and the most junior partner, Tlacopan.

As such, they were known as the 'Triple Alliance. However, over time, it was Tenochtitlan which assumed paramount authority in the alliance, and although each partner city shared spoils of war and rights to regular tribute from the provinces and were governed by their own Huetlatoani, it was Tenochtitlan which became the largest, most powerful, and most influential of the three cities.

It was the de facto and acknowledged center of empire. Though they were not described by the Aztec this way, there were essentially two types of provinces: Tributary and Strategic.

Strategic provinces were essentially subordinate client states which provided tribute or aid to the Aztec state under "mutual consent".

Tributary provinces, on the other hand, provided regular tribute to the empire; obligations on the part of Tributary provinces were mandatory rather than consensual.

Rulers, be they local teteuctin or tlatoani, or central Huetlatoani, were seen as representatives of the gods and therefore ruled by divine right.

Tlatocayotl , or the principle of rulership, established that this divine right was inherited by descent.

Political order was therefore also a cosmic order, and to kill a tlatoani was to transgress that order. For that reason, whenever a tlatoani was killed or otherwise removed from their station, a relative and member of the same bloodline was typically placed in their stead.

The establishment of the office of Huetlatoani understood through the creation of another level of rulership, hueitlatocayotl , standing in superior contrast to the lesser tlatocayotl principle.

Expansion of the empire was guided by a militaristic interpretation of Nahua religion, specifically a devout veneration of the sun god, Huitzilopochtli.

Militaristic state rituals were performed throughout the year according to a ceremonial calendar of events, rites, and mock battles. It was under Tlacaelel that Huitzilopochtli assumed his elevated role in the state pantheon and who argued that it was through blood sacrifice that the Sun would be maintained and thereby stave off the end of the world.

It was under this new, militaristic interpretation of Huitzilopochtli that Aztec soldiers were encouraged to fight wars and capture enemy soldiers for sacrifice.

See Article History. Britannica Quiz. Exploring Latin American History. Was the Incan civilization located in Mexico?

For whom was Bolivia named? From Belize to Gran Colombia, step back in time and journey through the empires and countries of Latin America. Aztec ruins of the former city-state of Tlatelolco foreground and the Church of Santiago de Tlatelolco background , Mexico City.

Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. The Aztecs were also known as the Tenochca from which the name for their capital city, Tenochtitlan, was derived or the Mexica the origin of the name of the city that would replace Tenochtitlan, as well as the name for the entire country.

The Aztecs appeared in Mesoamerica—as the south-central region of pre-Columbian Mexico is known—in the early 13th century.

Their arrival came just after, or perhaps helped bring about, the fall of the previously dominant Mesoamerican civilization, the Toltecs.

When the Aztecs saw an eagle perched on a cactus on the marshy land near the southwest border of Lake Texcoco, they took it as a sign to build their settlement there.

Typical Aztec crops included maize corn , along with beans, squashes, potatoes, tomatoes and avocados; they also supported themselves through fishing and hunting local animals such as rabbits, armadillos, snakes, coyotes and wild turkey.

Their relatively sophisticated system of agriculture including intensive cultivation of land and irrigation methods and a powerful military tradition would enable the Aztecs to build a successful state, and later an empire.

In , under their leader Itzcoatl, the Aztecs formed a three-way alliance with the Texcocans and the Tacubans to defeat their most powerful rivals for influence in the region, the Tepanec, and conquer their capital of Azcapotzalco.

By the early 16th century, the Aztecs had come to rule over up to small states, and some 5 to 6 million people, either by conquest or commerce.

The Aztec civilization was also highly developed socially, intellectually and artistically. It was a highly structured society with a strict caste system; at the top were nobles, while at the bottom were serfs, indentured servants and enslaved workers.

From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Map of city-states in the 16th century. Main article: Aztec Empire. Main article: Tenochtitlan.

Main article: Mesoamerican ball game. Main article: Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire. Great Empires of the Past: Empire of the Aztecs.

Infobase Publishing. Voyages in World History, Volume I. Centgage Learning. UNM Press. The Aztec World. Benchmark Education Company.

Ancient Aztecs. Lorenz Educational Press. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited. Retrieved April 17, Alexander Eds.

The American Indian Heritage Foundation. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Paul Tice ed. Indians in the Americas.

Book Tree. Aztec Medicine, Health and Nutrition. New Brunswick : Rutgers University Press.

Imperial Strategies and Core-Periphery Relations". It is generally agreed that the Nahua peoples were not indigenous to the highlands of central Mexico, but that Aztec gradually migrated into the region from somewhere in Otbs Mexico. Calpolli leaders might be or become members of the nobility, in which case they Auxmoney Erfahrung Kreditgeber represent their calpollis interests in the altepetl government. Solitaire Netzwelt Noche Triste. Aztec History and Culture. Through numerous subsequent battles and skirmishes, he captured the various indigenous city-states or altepetl around the lake shore and surrounding mountains, including the other capitals of the Triple Alliance, Tlacopan and Texcoco. The most well known examples of this type of sculpture are the Stone of Tizoc and the Stone of Motecuzoma Iboth carved with Aztec of warfare and conquest Fruit Spiele specific Aztec rulers. Davis, Jack E. Charlton, Thomas Chinampas were extremely fertile pieces of land, and yielded, on average, Magic Stones crops annually. Tikal Tikal is a Flirtgleich.Com Erfahrungen of Mayan ruins deep in the rainforests of northern Guatemala. Aztec Group is the bright alternative in fund and corporate services with dedicated client teams and a focus on alternative strategy asset classes. Contact. This site uses cookies, as explained in our cookie policy. If you agree to our use of cookies, please close this message and continue to . Aztec Learning System Login. Login. Password. {"user_id":"5fcd72addcee65b8f","real_id":null,"user_name":null,"first_name":null,"middle_name":"","last_name":null,"full_name":"","email":"[email protected]

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Während einige Schriften nur von Cashpoint Deutschland Bestand waren - die Indusschrift ging mit ihrer Kultur unter, die der Maya und Azteken zerstörten die spanischen Eroberer - wurde z.

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3 Kommentare

  1. Tera

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  2. Zuk

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  3. Fenrinos

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